• Rintels

The Dorothy and Jonathan Rintels Professorship for Holocaust and Related Studies

The mandate of The Dorothy and Jonathan Rintels Fund is to "stand and serve as a lasting tribute to the vision and commitment of Dorothy and Jonathan Rintels to the preservation of the memory of the Holocaust and to the defeat of totalitarianism.” 

Invited LecturesRintelspage1.jpg

Fall 2017

Norman JW Goda, Braman Professor of Holocaust Studies, Center for Jewish Studies, University of Florida will speak November 8, 2017 at 5 PM on "France, the Jews, and the Trial of Klaus Barbie."  The lecture will be held in the William Johnston Building room G40.
Antisemitic attacks have been on the rise in France in the past decade or so, amidst a certain official and popular reluctance to define these
attacks as such. The 1987 trial of Klaus Barbie reveals origins of the problem, owing to its muddled definition of crimes against humanity, its
flirtation with Holocaust denial, and the subsuming of the Holocaust within post-colonial narratives.
Eric Kurlander,  Professor, Stetson University, "Hitler's Monsters: A Supernatural History of the Third Reich" on Tuesday December 5 in WJB room G40 at 5 PM.
The Nazi fascination with the occult is often dismissed as pulp fiction or Hollywood fantasy. As Eric Kurlander argues in his new book, however, supernatural thinking was inextricable from the Nazi project. The regime enlisted astrology and the paranormal, paganism, Indo-Aryan mythology, witchcraft, miracle weapons, and the lost kingdom of Atlantis in reimagining German politics and society and recasting German science and religion. In this talk, Eric Kurlander reveals how the Third Reich’s relationship to the supernatural was far from straightforward. Even as popular occultism and superstition were intermittently rooted out, the Nazis drew upon a wide variety of occult practices and esoteric sciences to gain power, shape propaganda and policy, and pursue their dreams of racial utopia and empire.
Spring 2018

Steve Crawshaw, Office of the Secretary General, Amnesty International, London, “Against Impossible Odds: Extraordinary Achievements in Confronting Tyranny.” The lecture will take place on February 13 at 5 PM.

Steve Crawshaw is a former international advocacy director at Amnesty International and author of Street Spirit: The Power of Protest and Mischief (2017), foreword by Ai Weiwei. He was the Germany bureau chief for the Independent and as East Europe Editor he reported on the east European revolutions, the Soviet coup, and the Balkan wars. He is the author of 'Goodbye to the USSR’ (1992) and a five-part BBC series 'Germany Inside Out’. (2003) His book, Small Act of Resistance (2010) co-authored with John Jackson, with a preface by Václav Havel,has been translated into 10 languages including Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, Czech, Tibetan, and Chinese.  He is also the author of Easier Fatherland (2004).

Again and again, we hear how change in certain circumstances is unachievable – until it is achieved. (Often those achievements come through what Vaclav Havel described as the “power of the powerless”.) As a journalist with The Independent and in his roles at Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, he has repeatedly witnessed remarkable transformations – often combined with creative mischief. He will relate stories of courage and change,  in especially dark times of human rights abuses.

The lecture will take place on February 13 at 5 PM in the Dodd Hall Auditorium, DHA 103


Jan Gross img.jpg
Jan Tomasz Gross, Norman B. Tomlinson Professor of War and Society, and Professor of History at Princeton University, will speak on “Jews and their Neighbors in German-Occupied Poland" on February 27 at 5 pm.  Gross will address the question of whether the complicity of the local Polish population in the persecution of Jews during the Holocaust was the work of marginal and criminal elements only.  Drawing on examples from post-war trials he argues that citizens of good standing including leaders of the local society participated in it.

The lecture will take place on February 27 5:30 at the FSU Alumni Center, 1030 W Tennessee St.

Previous Speakers

Nigel Young, "Commemorative Politics and the World Wars: Contested Memorials and Current Policy in Europe" sponsored by The World War II Institute and the Rintels Professorship for Holocaust Studies. Thursday, October 19, 5:00 PM, G40 William Johnston Building.
Nigel Young is Editor-in-Chief of the 'Oxford International Encyclopedia of World Peace' for which he won the Dayton Literary Peace Prize.  Having helped start the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament at Oxford (1958-61), he has since held academic positions in sociology, politics and peace studies, at over a dozen universities and colleges worldwide.
History shows that memory can be influential in shaping public opinion and policies. How we remember, and what we remember, is political, and the politics of commemoration are controversial and highly contested. At this time one hundred years ago the battle of Passchendaele raged on, one of the bloodiest episodes of the First World War that symbolizes why that war is viewed as the seminal devastation of the twentieth century. Was it a British victory? A criminal waste of life? Nigel Young will consider this and other cases of history and memory from the World Wars in Europe.

Tuesday, March 28, 5:00 PM, 249 Fine Arts Building

Robert M. Beachy is Professor of History, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. He is author of Gay Berlin: the Birthplace of Modern Identity (Knopf, 2014) The Soul of Commerce: Credit, Property, and Politics in Leipzig, and co-editor of three volumes of essays on 1) German Moravians in the Atlantic World, 2) on Women in European Business and Commerce, and 3) on Urban Elites in Europe and North America. He has also been the recipient of numerous fellowships and prizes, including a John S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship, residential fellowships at the National Humanities Center and Stanford University’s Center for the Advanced Study of the Behavioral Sciences.  He is recipient of The American Historical Association’s Higby Prize for the best article in European history.  Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity won the 2015 Randy Shilts Prize for the best non-fiction work in LGBTQ literature. Gay Berlin was also named a Non-Fiction Honor Book by the Stonewall Book Awards of the American Library Association.

This talk is based on Professor Beachy's current research for a forthcoming book on Homosexuality in Hitler’s Germany.


Mordecai Paldiel "German Rescuers of Jews: Individuals versus the System"

Thursday April 21, 5:00 7:00 PM, 249 Fine Arts Building

Dr. Mordecai Paldiel is a survivor and the former Director of the Department of the Righteous at Yad Vashem, Israel’s Holocaust authority. Born in Belgium, Mordecai Paldiel fled with his family to France where a Catholic Priest smuggled the family into Switzerland. A leading authority on Rescue, he is the author of a number of books including German Rescuers of Jews: Individuals versus the System (2017), Saving One’s Own: Jewish Rescuers during the Holocaust (2017), The Righteous Among the Nations: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust (2007), Churches and The Holocaust: Unholy Teaching, Good Samaritans And Reconciliation (2006), Saving the Jews: Amazing Stories of Men and Women who Defied the Final Solution Hardcover (2000), The Path of the Righteous: Gentile Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust (1993).

List of Relevant Faculty Publications



Culver, A.  (2013). Glorify the Empire: Japanese "Avant-Garde" Propaganda in Rintelspage.jpgManchukuo, 1932-1945. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Gellately, R.  (2007). Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. New York: Alfred A. Knopf; London, Jonathan Cape.

Gellately, R. (2001). Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany, 1933-1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Gellately, R.  (1990). The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933-1945. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gellately R. & Stoltzfus, N. eds. (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Piehler, Kurt. Remembering War the American Way (2004). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books.

Stoltzfus, N. (2016). Hitler’s Compromises: Coercion and Consensus in Nazi Germany. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Stoltzfus, N. & Maier-Katkin, B., eds.(2015). Protest in Hitler’s ‘National Community’: Popular Unrest and the Nazi Response. New York: Berghahn Books.

Stoltzfus., N & Friedlander, Henry, eds. (2008). Nazi Crimes and the Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stoltzfus, N., Thalhammer, K., O'Loughlin, P., Glazer, M., Glazer, P., McFarland, S., & Shepela, S. (2007). Courageous Resistance: The Power of Ordinary People. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Stoltzfus, N. (1996). Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany. W.W. Norton & Co.

Williamson, G. (2004). The Longing for Myth: Religion and Aesthetic Culture from Romanticism to Nietzsche. University of Chicago Press.



Gellately, R.  (2000). "Crime, Identity and Power: Stories of Police Imposters in Nazi Germany." Crime, histoire et société -- Crime, History and Societies, 4 (2), 5-18.

Gellately, R. (1997). "Denunciations and Nazi Germany: New Insights and Methodological Problems". Historical Social Research/Historische Sozial-Forschung, 22 (3/4), 228-39.

Gellately, R. (1996). "Denunciations in Twentieth-Century Germany: Aspects of Self-Policing in the Third Reich and the German Democratic Republic". The Journal of Modern History, 931-67.

Gellately, R.  (1996). "Introduction to the Practices of Denunciation in Modern European History," with Sheila Fitzpatrick. The Journal of Modern History, 747-67.

Gellately, R. (1992). "Situating the 'SS-State' in a Social-historical Context: Recent Histories of the SS, the Police and the Courts in the Third Reich". The Journal of Modern History, 338-65.

Gellately, R.  (1991). "Rethinking the Nazi Terror System: A Historiographical Analysis". German Studies Review, 23-38.

Gellately, R.  (1988). "The Gestapo and German Society: Political Denunciation in the Gestapo Case Files". The Journal of Modern History, 60, 654-94.

Stoltzfus, N. “Trump, Hitler, and Americans Today: Are we better than Weimar Germans?” The Daily Beast, July 31, 2016, www.thedailybeast.com/contributors/nathan-stoltzfus.html.

Stoltzfus, N. “Hannah Arendt on Trial.” With Daniel Maier-Katkin, The American Scholar, Vol. 82, No. 3, (Summer 2013), https://theamericanscholar.org/hannah-arendt-on-trial/#.WfDhnq2B3dQ

Stoltzfus, N. (2011). Societal Influences on the Promulgation and Enforcement of the Nuremberg Laws. Soundings: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Humanities, Vol. 94(No. 3/4), 375-391.

Stoltzfus, N. “Helden ohne Namen,” Der Spiegel online, February 28, 2008, http://www.spiegel.de/einestages/widerstand-im-nationalsozialismus-helden-ohne-namen-a-946686.html

Stoltzfus, N. (2005). Historical Evidence and Plausible History: Interpreting the Berlin Gestapo's Attempted 'Final Roundup' of Jews. Central European History, 38 (3), 450-59.

Stoltzfus, N. "Die Wahrheit jenseits der Akten: Wer nur den NS-Dokumenten vertraut, verkennt den Widerstand der Deutschen,” Die Zeit, Nr. 45/30. October 2003,  http://www.zeit.de/2003/45/Rosenstra_a7e

Stoltzfus, N. (2003). Public Space and the Dynamics of Environmental Action: Green Protest in the German Democratic Republic. Archiv fur Sozialgeschichte, 43, 385-403.

Stoltzfus, N. (2000). Third Reich History as if the People Mattered. Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 26(4), 672-84.

Stoltzfus, N. "Unsung Heroes," Philadelphia Inquirer  (Commentary Page), March 18, 1997, http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/beitrag/diskusio/ausstell/ausstel9.htm

Stoltzfus, N. (1995). Der Protest in der Rosenstrasse und die deutsch-judische Mischehe. Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 21(2), 218-247.

Stoltzfus, N. "Dissent in Nazi Germany," The Atlantic Monthly, 270 (3) September, 1992, 87-94, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1992/09/dissent-in-nazi-germany/532725/

Stoltzfus, N. "Jemand war für mich da:  "Der Aufstand der Frauen in der Rosenstrasse," Dossier, Die Zeit,  no. 30--21, July, 21, 1989, (International edition, July 28, 1989), http://www.zeit.de/1989/30/jemand-war-fuer-mich-da  

Williamson, G. (2000). What Killed August von Kotzebue? The Temptations of Virtue and the Political Theology of German Nationalism, 1789–1819. The Journal of Modern History, 72(4), 890-943. doi:1. 


Book Chapters

Culver, A. A. (in press). "Cultural Responses to Total War, 1930s-1945". In Kurt Piehler (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of World War II (28 pages). New York: Oxford University


Williamson, G. S. (2011). Protestants, Catholics, and Jews, 1760-1871: Enlightenment, Emancipation, New Forms of Piety. In H. W. Smith (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Modern German History (pp. 211-233). Oxford University Press.

Book Chapters

Gellately, R. J. (2010). "The Persecution of Social Outsiders and the Consolidation of Hitler's Dictatorship, 1933-39" (published in Portuguese). In Denise Rollemberg, Marcelo Bittencourt, Norberto Ferreras, & Samantha Viz Quadrat (Eds.), A construção social dos regimes autoritários : legitimidade, consenso e consentimento no século XX: Europa (pp. 204-42). Civilização Brasileira, Rio de Janeiro.

Gellately, R. J. (2004). "Nuremberg, Voices from the Past". In Robert Gellately (Ed.), The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist's Conversations with Defendants and Witnesses at the Nuremberg Trial (pp. ix-xxxi). New York: Alfred A Knopf.

Gellately, R. J. (2003). "Introduction to the Study of Mass Murder and Genocide," with Ben Kiernan. In Robert Gellately, & Ben Kiernan (Eds.), The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder and other Mass Crimes in Historical Perspective (pp. 3-26). Cambridge University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (2003). "Investigating Genocide," with Ben Kiernan. In Robert Gellately, & Ben Kiernan (Eds.), The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder and other Mass Crimes in Historical Perspective (pp. 373-80). Cambridge University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (2003). "The Third Reich, the Holocaust and Plans for Serial Genocide". In Robert Gellately, & Ben Kiernan (Eds.), The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder and other Mass Crimes in Historical Perspective (pp. 241-63). Cambridge University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (2001). "A Monstrous Uneasiness: Citizen Participation and the Persecution of the Jews in Nazi Germany". In Joseph R. Mitchell, & Helen Buss Mitchell (Eds.), The Holocaust: Readings and Interpretations (pp. 174-82). McGraw-Hill/Dushkin .

Gellately, R. J. (2001). "Police Justice, Popular Justice and Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany: The Example of Polish Foreign Workers". In Gellately R. & Stoltzfus, N. eds. (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany (pp. 256-72). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (2001). "Social Outsiders and the Construction of the 'Community of the People' in Nazi Germany," with Nathan Stoltzfus. In Gellately R. & Stoltzfus, N. eds. (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany (pp. 3-19). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (2000). "The Gestapo and Social Cooperation". In Neil Gregor (Ed.), Nazism (pp. 253-5). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (1997). "Emergence d'un 'système judiciaire de type policier'". In Jean-Marc Berlière, & Denis Peschanski (Eds.), Pouvoirs et Polices au XXe Siècle: Europe, États-Unis, Japon (pp. 63-79). Belgium: Éditions Complexe.

Gellately, R. J. (1997). "Zur Entstehungsgeschichte einer selbstüberwachenden Gesellschaft". In Detlev Schmiechen- Ackermann (Ed.), Anpassung, Verweigerung, Widerstand: Soziale Milieus, Politische Kultur und der Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus in Deutschland im regionalen Vergleich (pp. 109-21). Berlin: Hentrich Verlag.

Gellately, R. J. (1996). "Confinement in Germany 1933-45: 'Protective Custody' and Other Police Strategies". In Norbert Finzsch, & Robert Jütte (Eds.), The Prerogatives of Confinement (pp. 191-211). Cambridge University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (1995). "Allwissend und allgegenwärtig? Entstehung, Funktion und Wandel des Gestapo-Mythos". In Gerhard Paul, & Klaus-Michael Mallmann (Eds.), Die Gestapo-Mythos und Realität (pp. 47-70). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

Gellately, R. J. (1993). "Die Gestapo und 'Öffentliche Sicherheit und Ordnung'". In H. Reinke (Ed.), "...nur für die Sicherheit da?" Großstadt und Polizei im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (pp. 94-115). Frankfurt: Campus-Verlag.

Gellately, R. J. (1993). "Enforcing Racial Policy in Nazi Germany". In Jane Caplan, & Thomas Childers (Eds.), Re-Evaluating the "Third Reich": New Controversies, New Interpretations (pp. 42-65). New York: Holmes & Meier.

Gellately, R. J. (1992). "Gestapo und Terror: Perspektiven auf die Sozialgeschichte des nationalsozialistischen Herrschaftssystems". In Alf Lüdtke (Eds.), Zur Polizei-geschichte im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (pp. 371-92). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp-Verlag.

Gellately, R. J. (1992). "In den Klauen der Gestapo: Die Bedeutung von Denunziationen für das nationalsozialistischen Terrorsystem in Nordrhein-Westfalen". In Anselm Faust (Ed.), Verfolgung und Widerstand in Rheinland und Westfalen (pp. 40-9). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

Gellately, R. J. (1990). "Surveillance and Disobedience: Comments on the Political Policing of Nazi Germany". In Francis R. Nicosia, & Lawrence D. Stokes (Eds.), Opposition and Resistance to National Socialism in Germany, 1925-1945 (pp. 15-36). Oxford: Berg.

Gellately, R. J. (1975). "Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Massenkonsumgesellschaft Deutschlands: Der Kleinhandelsmarkt, 1871-1914". In Joachim Hütter, Reinhard Meyers, & Dietrich Papenfuss (Eds.), Tradition und Neubeginn. Internationale Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte im 20.Jahrhundert (pp. 467-80). Cologne: Carl Heymanns Verlag.

Stoltzfus, N. (2009). Memory and Representations of Fascism in Germany and Italy. In R.J.B. Bosworth (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook on Fascism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stoltzfus, N. (2008). A Great Achievement of German Troops in Mountain Warfare. In Nazi Crimes and the Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stoltzfus, N. (2008). Tactical Terror: Exceptions to Nazi Reliance on terror for Repressing Dissent and their Social Causes. In Terror: From Tyrannicide to Terrorism. St Lucia, London, New York: University of Queensland and Routledge.

Stoltzfus, N. (2005). Protest Nemetskih v usloviyah total'noyi voiny. In Zhenshchina i voĭna, 1941-1945, Rossiia i Germaniia. (Women and War, 1941-1945: Russia and Germany). Volgograd: Volgograd Center of German Studies.

Stoltzfus, N. (2005). Gerhard Lehfeldts Bericht an Kirchenfuehrer beider Konfessionen ueber den Massenmord an den Juden Europas. In Antonia Leugers (Ed.), Berlin, Rosenstrasse 2-4. Protest in der NS-Diktatur. Neue Forschungen zum Frauenprotest in der Rosenstrasse 1943 (pp. 145-62). Annweiler: Ploeger.

Stoltzfus, N. (2004). Rosenstrasse: Civil Courage of Ordinary Persons in Nazi Germany. In John J. Michalczyk (Ed.), Confront. Resistance in Nazi Germany (pp. 163-89). Peter Lang.

Stoltzfus, N. (2003). 'Der Versuch, in der Wahrheit zu leben' und die Rettung von Judischen Angehorigen durch deutsche Frauen im 'Dritten Reich'. In Jana Leichsenring (Ed.), Frauen und Widerstand (pp. 74-88). Schriftenreihe der Forschungsgemeinschaft 20. Juli 1944.

Stoltzfus, N. (2003). Interpreting Responsibility for War and Genocide: the Case of Nazi Germany. In Dennis Razis (Ed.), The Human Predicament. Ecological Dynamics and Human Nature (pp. 275-92). Greek Culture Ministry/S&P.

Stoltzfus, N. (2001). The Limits of Policy: Social Protection of Intermarried Jews in Nazi Germany. In Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany (pp. 117-44). Princeton University Press.

Stoltzfus, N. (2001). Witness in Spite of Himself: Victor Klemperer's Twentieth Century Germanies. In John K. Roth, & Elisabeth Maxwell (Eds.), Remembering for the Future: The Holocaust in an Age of Genocides, vol. 1 (pp. 543-51). Palgrave, Basingstoke.

Stoltzfus, N., & Gellately, R. (2001). Social Outsiders and the Construction of the Community of the People. In Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany (pp. 3-19). Princeton University Press.

Stoltzfus, N. (1998). Protest and Silence: Resistance Histories in Post-War Germany and the Case of Intermarried Germans. In Ruby Rohrlich (Ed.), Resisting the Shoah (pp. 151-78). Berg Publishers.

Stoltzfus, N. (1997). Dissent Under Socialism: Opposition, Reform, and the West German Media in the German Democratic Republic of the 1980s. In Richard G. Fox, & Orin Starn (Eds.), Between Resistance and Revolution Cultural Politics and Social Protest (pp. 195-222). Rutgers University Press.

Stoltzfus, N. (1996). Dissent in Nazi Germany. In Arthur Auten (Ed.), From Napoleon to the Space Age: Readings in Western Civilization. New York: American Heritage.


Edited Books

Gellately, R. J. (Ed.). (2004). The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist's Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses at the Nuremberg Trials [Edited book]. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Gellately, R. J. (Ed.). (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder and other Mass Crimes in Historical Perspective [Co-edited book]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (Ed.). (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany [Co-edited book]. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Gellately, R. J. (Ed.). (1997). Accusatory Practices: Denunciation in Modern European History, 1789-1989 [Co-edited book]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Piehler, G. K. (Ed.). (contract). Oxford Handbook of World War II. Manuscript under contract for publication, Oxford University Press.

Piehler, G. K., & Johnson, M. J. (Eds.). (in press). Encyclopedia of Military Science. Sage Publication.

Piehler, G. K. (Ed.). (2012). The United States in World War II: A Documentary Reader. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell.

Piehler, G. K., & Pash, S. (Eds.). (2010). The United States and the Second World War: New Perspectives on Diplomacy, War, and the Home Front. New York: Fordham University Press.

Piehler, G. K., & Mariner, R. (Eds.). (2009). The Atomic Bomb and American Society: New Perspectives. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Piehler, G. K., & Chambers, J. W. I. (Eds.). (1999). Major Problems in American Military History. Boston: Hougton Mifflin.

Stoltzfus, N. (Ed.). (contract). Protest in Hitler's Community, An Edited Collection. Manuscript under contract for publication, Berghahn Books.

Stoltzfus, N., & Friedlander, Henry (co-editor and Auschwitz survivor). (Eds.). (2008). Nazi Crimes and the Law. New York. Retrieved from http://www.cambridge.org/aus/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521899741&ss=cop

Gellately R. & Stoltzfus, N. eds. (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wynot, E.  (1997). Prisoner of history: The Eastern Orthodox Church in Poland in the twentieth-century. Journal of Church and State, 39(2), 319-338.

Wynot, E.  (1996). The Poles in Germany, 1919-1939. East European Quarterly, 30(2), 171-186.

Wynot, E. (1971). Necessary Cruelty - Emergence of Official Anti-Semitism in Poland, 1936-1939. American Historical Review, 76(4), 1035-1058. doi:10.2307/1849240

Wynot, E. (1971). Service of Youth - Polish Experiment in Social Modernization, 1937-1939. Canadian Slavic Studies, 5(2), 213-225.